Singer’s model of thought reform developed from her work on the tactics
used by cults and cult leaders. The model is based upon the
following six stages:
Creation of a
Fear and Vulnerability
Victim is Kept Unaware
specific tactics are:
Keep the person unaware of
what is going on and the changes taking place.
Control the person’s time
and, if possible, physical environment.
Create a sense of
powerlessness, covert fear, and dependency.
Suppress much of the
person’s old behavior and attitudes.
Instill new behavior and
Put forth a closed system of
logic; allow no real input or criticism.
methods of assessing undue influence: